专业术语

  • Absolute Pressure (psia): The total force per unit area exerted by a fluid. The sum of atmospheric and gage pressures.
  • Accuracy:观察值与指定范围内测量值匹配的程度。
  • 交流电流(AC):当前,逆转极性统一的频率uency.
  • ANSI:美国国家标准研究所是一家私人非营利组织,负责监督美国的产品,服务,流程,系统和人员的自愿共识标准的发展。
  • ASTM: (Formerly known as The American Society for Testing and Materials) An international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
  • 气压: The force exerted per unit area by the weight of the atmosphere.
  • 英国热门单位(BTU): The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Melting a pound of ice at 32°F requires 143 BTU.
  • BSPT: British Standard Pipe Thread.
  • Capacitance: A measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. The most common form of charge storage device is a two-plate capacitor.
  • Cavitation:随着压力开始增加,控制阀内流动液体坍塌的蒸汽气泡的过程。
  • 闭环: A control system that provides feedback to a controller on the state of the process variable.
  • 冷端: The end of thermocouple that is kept at a constant temperature in order to provide a reference point.
  • 联系人:用于机械制造或打破电路的元素。
  • Critical Pressure: The ratio of upstream to downstream pressure where the gas velocity out of the valve is sonic and further decreases in downstream pressure no longer increase the flow.
  • CV或阀门流量系数:60°F的水每分钟每分钟每分钟的加仑数量,将通过阀门,压降1psi。
  • Deadband:交换机致动和脱模之间的测量值。
  • 密度:每单位体积的给定物质的质量。
  • Derivative Control: A method of changing the output of a controller in proportion to the rate of change of the process variable.
  • 露天: The temperature to which air must be cooled for the air to be saturated with water.
  • 介电:电容器的导体之间的绝缘材料。
  • 介电常数:材料绝缘能力与真空绝缘能力的比率。
  • din: Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., The German national organization for standardization and is that country’s ISO member body. DIN and mini-DIN connectors, as well as DIN rails are several examples of older DIN standards that are today used around the world.
  • Direct Current (DC):具有恒定极性的电流。
  • 双极双掷(DPDT)开关: Two separate switches that operate simultaneously, each with a normally open and a normally closed contact and a common connection.
  • 漂移: A gradual change in an element over time when the process conditions are constant.
  • 干灯泡温度: The ambient air temperature measured by a thermometer that is freely exposed to the air but shielded from other heating or cooling effects.
  • Emissivity: The ratio of energy radiated by the material to energy radiated by a black body at the same temperature. It is a measure of a material’s ability to absorb and radiate energy.
  • Form-C Contact:具有常开和常闭触点的接触。
  • 模糊逻辑:一种使用基于模拟输入的模糊集的数学或计算推理的系统。
  • Gage Pressure (psig): The measure of force per area exerted by a fluid using atmospheric pressure as the zero reference.
  • Gain:输出变化与进程输入变化的比率。
  • 热门交界处: The joined end of the thermocouple that is exposed to the process where the temperature measurement is desired.
  • 湿度: The amount of water vapor in a given volume of air or gas.
  • Hydrostatic Pressure:液柱头引起的压力。
  • 滞后:设备或仪器的属性,由此提供与其输入值相对于其输入值的不同输出值,具体取决于应用输入值的定向序列。[IEC 61298-2]
  • 阻抗:在电路中的反对流到交流电流的流动,包括电感电抗,欧姆电阻和电容电抗。不准确:从指定条件下测试设备的指定特征曲线以及指定的过程中观察到的最大正面和负偏差。[IEC 61298-2]
    • 注1.:准确性在IEC 60050-300中定义,定义311-06-08。
    • 笔记2:术语不准确有时被称为测量的准确性。不应使用该术语。
  • 归纳负荷:通过卷绕或卷绕线的电流产生磁场,又产生机械工作。
  • 积分控制:通过与误差和该错误的持续时间将控制器输出更改控制器的方法。
  • Laminar Flow: Smooth fluid flow that has a parabolic flow profile with no mixing between streamlines.
  • 线性: Ability of a measuring instrument to provide an indication having a linear relationship with a defined quantity other than an influence quantity. [IEC 60050-300]
    • 注意: The method of expression of lack of linearity is different for different kinds of instruments and is established in each particular instance.
  • Long-Term Span Drift: The amount of change of a measured reading with 90% of full scale range pressure applied and constant ambient conditions over a given period of time which is typically quoted as an annual figure. [IEC 61298-2]
  • Long-Term Zero Drift:测量读数的变化量,零压力施加零压力和恒定的环境条件,在给定的时间段内通常引用为年度数字。
  • Low Pressure Steam: As defined by ASME, steam under 15 psi pressure.
  • 手动重置:在从警报状态下将返回其正常状态之前必须具有人类输入的控制。
  • Maximum Surge Pressure:开关外壳的安全压力,但这可能通过连续或重复应用损坏机制。
  • NEMA:国民电气制造商协会,在美国的贸易协会,电气设备制造商开发了许多行业技术标准,如电气设备外壳标准。
  • NIST:国家标准与技术研究所,是美国商务部的非监管机构。该研究所提供标准参考和校准服务。
  • Non-Linearity:偏离线性。[IEC 61298-2]
    • 注1.:线性度在IEC 60050(300)中定义,定义311-06-05。
    • 笔记2:非线性不包括滞后。
  • Non-Repeatability: Deviation from repeatability. [IEC 61298-2]
    • 注3.:可重复性在IEC 60050(300)中定义,定义311-06-06。
  • Normally Closed Switch: A switch in which the contacts are normally closed. Actuation opens the contact.
  • Normally Open Switch: A switch in which the contacts are normally open. Actuation closes the contacts.
  • n: National Pipe Thread.
  • NSF.:一个非营利性,非政府组织制定标准,并在公共卫生和安全领域提供产品认证和教育。
  • Null Switch:带有无接触区域的浮动接触开关。通常用于操作可逆电机。
  • pH:以0(最酸性),7(中性)至14(最碱性)的单位的酸度或碱度的指示。
  • Pressure Drop:流过阀门的流体上游和下游压力的差异。
  • Proportional Control: A method of changing the output of a controller by an amount proportional to the error.
  • 比例整体控制(PI):比例和积分控制组合。
  • 比例 - 积分 - 衍生物控制(PID):比例,积分和衍生控制组合。
  • Range: The span of rates within which the sensing element of a given switch can be set to actuate an electric switch.
  • Rated Pressure:与介质接触的开关的致动部件的最大压力可以承受连续和/或反复承受,没有永久性损坏的风险。
  • 相对湿度: The ratio of the quantity of water vapor in the air to the quantity of water vapor required for saturation at the same temperature.
  • Repeatability:在相同测量的连续测量结果之间的吻合吻合的恰逢,在相同的测量条件下进行,即:通过相同的测量程序;同样的观察者;采用相同的测量仪器,在相同的条件下使用;在相对较短的时间间隔。[IEC 60050-300]
  • Repetitive Accuracy:交换机在一致条件下重复运行的能力。
  • 响应时间:要元素响应测量变量值的变化需要的时间或产生输出信号的变化。
  • 轮流管:由锥形管和浮子组成的可变区域流量计。
  • RS-232.:(推荐标准232)是连接DTE(数据终端设备)和DCE(数据电路终端设备)之间的串行二进制数据信号的标准。
  • RS-485.: (Now known as EIA-485) is an OSI model physical layer electrical specification of a two-wire, half-duplex, multipoint serial connection.
  • Saturation Point:形成凝结的点。
  • Serial Transmission: Sending one bit at a time on a single transmission line.
  • Set or Actuation Point: The exact rate which will cause the electric switch to actuate.
  • 单极单掷(SPST)开关:仅具有常开或常闭触点中的一个的开关。
  • 单极双掷(SPDT)开关:常开和常闭开关触点组合的开关。
  • Solid State: Any element that controls current without moving parts, vacuum gaps or heated filaments.
  • 跨度: The difference between the highest and lowest numbers in a range.
  • 跨度温度系数:跨度读数的最大量可以在补偿温度范围内的任何点发生变化。此错误通常表示为读取的满量程输出的百分比。它还可以表示为每°C,°F或k的满量程的百分比。±0.02%FS /°C。
  • 比重:流体密度与参考流体密度的比率。
  • 静压力:静止的液体施加的压力。流体向外推动容器的壁。
  • 温度补偿:对测量温度影响的校正。
  • 3-A: 3-A Sanitary Standards Inc., A non-profit association representing equipment manufacturers, processors, regulatory sanitarians, and other public health professionals that creates standards and accepted practices for dairy and food processing equipment and systems.
  • Total Pressure:速度和静压之和。
  • 传感器:任何从物理测量产生电信号的设备。
  • 发射机: A device that translates the low-level output of a sensor or transducer to a higher level signal suitable for transmission to a site where it can be further processed.
  • Turbulent Flow: Fluid flow in which the flow profile is a flattened parabola, the streamlines are not present, and the fluid is freely mixing.
  • 调低比: The ratio of the maximum to minimum measurable value that can still produce full-scale output.
  • Velocity Pressure (Dynamic Pressure): The pressure exerted by the velocity of a fluid. Can be measured by the difference between total and static pressure.
  • 粘度:在受到剪切应力时流体流动的电阻。
  • 湿灯泡温度:通过蒸发到大气中的水冷却效果可以获得的最低温度。
  • 零温度系数:零压力下的最大值读数可能偏离补偿温度范围。此错误通常表示为读取的满量程输出的百分比。它还可以表示为每°C,°F或k的满量程的百分比。±0.02%FS /°C。